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Cold Water

Exam revision materials for Plumbing Level 2&3 and ACS Gas Safety test

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Water Contamination

Water Treatment

Water Categories

  • WRAS Information and Guidance Note - Installation of Ion Exchange Water Softeners
    for Systems Supplying Water for Domestic Purposes
  • UK Water Treatment Accossiation UKWTA - provides guidance on the installation of ion exchange water softeners

    • Permanent Hard
      • does not lather well
      • leaves scum on a surface
      • containing Calcium and Magnesium
    • Temporary Hard
      • leaves scale deosits when heate above 65°C
      • can be problematic for householders
    • Soft (acidic)
      • lathers easily
      • dissolves metals
      • less work for plumbers

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    Water Filtration

    • Activated Carbon (AC) Water Filters - removes bad taste, odour and harmful bacteria
    • Ultraviolet (UV) Water Filters - ONLY kills most bacteria (fish pounds)
    • Water Distillation - water is of high quality
      • low filtration capacity
    • Sand Filters - used on large scale treatment
      • does not remove sulphates or calcium
    • Reverse Osmosis - used in hospitals, breweries and in drive through car wash
      • Desalination - turning sea water into drinking water
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    Chemical Treatment

    • Algaecide - kills algae, negative for the environment
    • Chlorine - cancer-causing agents
    • Dry or Muriatic Acid - decreases the pH levels in water
    • Soda Ash or Sodium Bicarbonate - increases thepH levels in water
    • Central Heating Treatment:
      • Document L
      • must be chemically protected after each fill up the system
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    Water Conditioners

    Reduces the ability to cause scale (hard water treatment)

    • Magnetic Scale Reducer
      • should be added on mains feed water if water has more than 200ppm of Ca
      • effect doesn't last long
      • recommended for combination boilers, electric showers
      • not suitable for stored water
    • Electrolytic - suitable for whole house protection
    • Chemical Scale Reducers - the crystals have working life and require to be replaced periodically
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    Water Softener

    positioning a water treatment unit
    • containing Sodium Zeolites
    • treats hard water
    • drinking point is directly from the mains
    • bypass the softener for WC and standpipes
    • BS 6920:2000 - suitability of non-metallic products
    • BS EN 14743 - deals with consumption requirements
    • Air Gap = 2 x ØDrain Tube or 20mm
    • Installation layout:
      Water Softener installation layout
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    Category 2

  • impaired temperature, taste, odour , appearance (CWSC with open vent; water softener; ice maker; fire sprinkler)
  • Prevention: EA/EB - Single Check Valve (Verifiable/None-verifiable; reed more)
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